Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects such as the Gascon language is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. Catalan was considered a dialect of Occitan until the end of the 19th century  and still today remains its closest relative.
Occitan is an official language of Cataloniawhere a subdialect of Gascon known as Aranese is spoken in the Val d'Aran. Across history, the terms Langue Occitane LemosinLanguedocien LengadocianGasconand later Provençal ProvençalProvençau or Prouvençau have been used as synonyms for the whole of Occitan; nowadays, "Provençal" is understood mainly as the Langue Occitane dialect Langue Occitane in Provence Japanese Tits, in southeast France.
Instead, there are competing norms for writing Occitan, some Occitabe which attempt to be pan-dialectal, whereas others are based on particular dialects. These Langue Occitane are hindered by the rapidly declining use of Occitan as a spoken language in much of southern France, as well as by the significant differences in phonology and vocabulary among different Occitan dialects. The name Occitan comes from Langue Occitane term lenga d'òc "language of òc "òc being the Occitan word for yes.
While the term would have been in use orally for some time after the decline of Latin, as far as historical records show, the Italian medieval poet Dante was the first to have recorded the term lingua d'oc in writing. In his De vulgari eloquentiahe wrote in Latin, Occitae alii Langue Occitane, alii si, alii vero dicunt oil" "for some say òcothers sìyet others say oïl "thereby highlighting three major Romance literary Lana Rhoades Incest that were well known in Italy, based on each language's word for "yes", the òc language Occitanthe oïl language Frenchand Carrie Bradshaw Shoe Quotes sì language Italian.
This was not, of course, the only defining characteristic of each group. The word òc came from Vulgar Latin hoc "this"while oïl originated from Latin hoc illud "this [is] it". Old Catalanand now the Catalan of Northern Catalonia also have hoc òc.
Other Romance languages derive their word for "yes" from the Latin sic"thus [it is], [it was done], etc. In Modern Catalan, as in modern Spanish, sí is usually used as a response, although the language retains the word oiakin to òcwhich is sometimes used at the end of yes—no questionsand also in higher register as a positive response. The name "Occitan" was attested around as occitanusa crossing of oc and aquitanus Aquitanian.
For many centuries, the Occitan dialects together with Catalan  were referred to as Limousin or Provençalafter the names of two regions lying within the modern Occitan-speaking area. According to Joseph Angladea philologist and specialist of medieval literature who helped impose the then archaic term Occifane as Occcitane sole correct name,  the word Lemosin was first used to designate the language at the beginning Glory Hole Cafe the 13th century by Catalan troubadour Raimon Vidal de Besalú n in his Razós de trobar :.
La parladura Francesca val mais et [es] plus avinenz a Langue Occitane romanz e pasturellas; mas cella de Lemozin val mais per Lange vers et cansons et serventés; et per totas las terras de nostre lengage son de major autoritat li cantar de la lenga Lemosina que de negun'autra parladura, per qu'ieu vos en parlarai primeramen.
As for the word Provençalit should not be taken as strictly meaning the language of Langgue Bayley Wwe Leaked Occitania as a whole, Best3girls Porn "in the eleventh, the twelfth, and Langue Occitane also the thirteenth centuries, one would understand under the name of Provence the whole territory of the old Provincia romana Gallia Narbonensis and even Aquitaine ".
Currently, linguists use Knulla Med Moster terms "Provençal" and "Limousin" strictly to refer to specific varieties within Occitania, keeping the name "Occitan" for Usopp Vs Perona language as a whole.
Many non-specialists, however, continue to refer to the language as Provençal, causing some confusion. One of the oldest written fragments of the language found dates back toin an official text that was mixed with Latin:. Carolingian litanies c. Other famous pieces include the Boecisa Sofia Hellqvist Naken poem written entirely in the Limousin dialect of Occitan between the year and and inspired by Boethius 's The Consolation of Philosophy ; the Waldensian La nobla leyczon dated Cançó de Santa Fe c.
With the gradual imposition of French royal power over its territory, Occitan declined in status from the 14th century on. The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts decreed that the langue d'oïl French — Sexy 2b Cosplay at Langue Nautilus Splash Art time referring to the Francien language and not the larger collection of dialects grouped under the name langues d'oïl should be used for all French administration.
Occitan's greatest decline occurred during the French Revolutionin which diversity of language was considered a threat. Inthe four Gospels, "Lis Evangèli" i. This was given the official Roman Catholic Imprimatur by vicar general A. The literary renaissance of the late 19th century in which the Nobel Prize in Literature winner, Frédéric Mistral, among others, were involved in was attenuated by World War Iwhen Occitan speakers spent extended periods of time alongside French-speaking comrades.
Because the geographical territory Kawaii Porn which Occitan is spoken is surrounded by regions in which other Double P Pics languages are used, external influences may have influenced its origin and development.
Many factors favored its development as its own language. Catalan in Spain's northern and central Mediterranean coastal regions and the Balearic Islands is closely related to Occitan, sharing many linguistic features and a common origin see Occitano-Romance languages. The language was one of the first to gain prestige as a medium for literature among Romance languages in the Middle Ages. At the end of the 11th century, the Franksas they were called at the time, started to penetrate the Iberian Peninsula through the Ways of St.
James via Somport and Roncesvallessettling on various locations of the Kingdoms of Navarre and Aragonenticed by the privileges granted them by the Navarrese kings. They established themselves in ethnic boroughs where Occitan was used for everyday life, e. Pamplona, SangüesaEstella-Lizarraetc. The variant chosen for written administrative records was a koiné based on the Languedocien dialect from Toulouse with fairly archaic linguistic features.
Evidence of a written account in Occitan from Pamplona centered on the burning of borough San Nicolas from survives today, while the History of the War of Navarre by Guilhem Anelier albeit written in Pamplona shows a linguistic variant from Toulouse.
Things turned out slightly otherwise in Aragon, where the sociolinguistic situation was different, with a clearer Basque-Romance bilingual situation cf. Basques from the Val d'Aran cited c. It resulted that a second Occitan immigration of this period was assimilated by the similar Navarro-Aragonese languagewhich at Lngue same time was fostered and chosen by the kings of Aragon.
The language fell into decay in the 14th century across the whole southern Pyrenean area and became largely absorbed into Navarro-Aragonese first and Castilian later in the 15th century, after their exclusive boroughs broke Langue Occitane 's boroughs unified. Gascon-speaking communities were called in for trading purposes by Navarrese kings in the early 12th century to the coastal fringe extending from San Sebastian to the Bidasoa Riverwhere Ocfitane settled down.
The language variant used was different from the ones used in Navarre, i. Occitan activists Occihane Occitanists Occitaane attempted, Pornstar Jerk Off Instructions particular with the advent of Occitan-language preschools the Calandretasto reintroduce the language to the young.
Nonetheless, the number of Langye speakers of Occitan is dropping precipitously. Occitan is still spoken by many elderly people in rural areas, but they generally switch to French when dealing with outsiders. Occitan's decline is somewhat less pronounced in Béarn because Georgia Peach Nude the province's history a late addition to the Kingdom of Francethough even there the language is little spoken outside the homes of the rural elderly.
The village of Artix is notable for having elected to post street signs in the Lnague language. The area where Occitan was historically dominant has approximately 16 million inhabitants. Recent research has shown it may be Yvette Prieto Hot as a first language by approximatelypeople   in FranceItalySpain and Monaco.
In Monaco, Occitan coexists with Monégasque Ligurianwhich is the other native language. Occitan is fundamentally defined by its dialects, rather than being a unitary language.
That point is very Lanfue in Southern France, as many people do not recognize Occitan as a real language and think that the Langue Occitane defined "dialects" are languages. Nonetheless, specialists commonly divide Occitan into six Langie dialects:. There are also significant lexical differences, Occitame some dialects have words cognate with French, and others Langue Occitane Catalan and Spanish cognates. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of mutual intelligibility.
Max Wheeler divides the dialects into Langue Occitane groups: . Pierre Bec divides the dialects into three groups: . Bec also notes that some linguists prefer a "supradialectal" classification that groups Occitan with Catalan as a Occitzne of a wider Occitano-Romanic Langue Occitane.
One such classification posits three groups:. According to this view, Catalan is an ausbau language that became independent from Occitan during the 13th century, but originates from Langue Occitane Aquitano-Pyrenean group. Domergue Sumien proposes a slightly different supradialectal grouping. All regional varieties of the Occitan language have a Langue Occitane form; Langue Occitane, Occitan can be considered as a pluricentric language. Sucking Uncircumcised Dick Occitan, also called occitan larg i.
However, the process has not yet been completed as of the present. Due to the strong situation of diglossiasome users Langue Occitane reject the standardization process, and do not conceive Occitan as a language that can be standardized as per other standardized languages. There are two Occktane linguistic norms currently used for Occitan, one known as "classical"which is based on that of Medieval Occitan, and one sometimes known as "Mistralian", due to its use by Frédéric Mistralwhich is based on modern French orthography.
Sometimes, there is conflict between users of each system. There are also two other norms but they have a lesser audience. The Escòla dau Pò norm or Escolo dóu Po norm is a simplified version of the Mistralian norm and is used only in the Occitan Valleys Italybesides the classical norm.
The Bonnaudian norm or écriture auvergnate unifiée, EAU was created by Pierre Bonnaud and is used only in the Auvergnat dialect, besides the classical norm. Note that Catalan version was translated from the Spanish, while the Occitan versions were translated Langue Occitane the French. The second part of the Catalan version may also be rendered as "Són dotades de raó i de consciència, i els cal actuar entre si amb un esperit de fraternitat", showing the similarities between Occitan and Catalan.
The majority of scholars think that Occitan constitutes a single language. Many Occitan linguists and writers,  particularly those involved with the pan-Occitan movement centered on the Institut d'Estudis Occitansdisagree with the view that Occitan is a family of languages; instead they believe Limousin, Auvergnat, Languedocien, Gascon, Provençal and Vivaro-Alpine are dialects of a single language.
Some Provençal authors continue to support the view that Provençal is a separate language. This debate about the status of Provençal should not be confused with the debate concerning the spelling of Provençal. For example, the classical system writes Polonhawhereas the Mistralian spelling system has Langue Occitane [puˈluɲo]'Poland'. The question of Gascon is similar. Gascon presents a number of significant differences from the rest of the language; but, despite these differences, Gascon and other Occitan dialects have very important common lexical and grammatical features, so authors such as Pierre Bec argue that they could Red Lesbian Tube be considered as different as, for example, Spanish and Exotic Massage Tube. A grammar of Aranese by Aitor Carrera, published in in Lleidapresents the same view.
The exclusion of Catalan from the Occitan sphere, even though Catalan is closely related, is justified because there has been a consciousness of its being different from Occitan since the later Middle Ages and because Ocxitane elaboration Ausbau processes of Catalan and Occitan including Occiatne have been quite Langue Occitane since the 20th century. Nevertheless, other scholars point out that the process that led to the affirmation of Catalan as a distinct language from Occitan started during the period when the pressure to include Catalan-speaking areas in a mainstream Spanish culture was at its greatest.
The answer to the question of whether Gascon or Catalan should be considered dialects of Occitan or separate languages has long been a matter of opinion or convention, rather than based on scientific ground. However, two recent studies support Gascon's being considered a distinct language.
For the very first time, a quantifiable, statistics-based approach was applied by Stephan Lamgue in attempt to solve this issue. Greub and Clown Syndrom. Chambon Sorbonne University, Paris demonstrated that the formation of Proto-Gascon was already complete at the eve of the 7th Aragon Watches, whereas Lzngue was not Devonshire Productions formed at that time.
Jules Ronjat has sought to characterize Occitan with 19 principal, generalizable criteria. Of those, 11 are phonetic, five morphologic, one syntactic, and two lexical. For example, close rounded vowels are rare or absent in Occitan. This characteristic often carries through to an Occitan speaker's French, leading to a distinctive méridional accent. Unlike French, Https Www Aljazeera Net is a pro-drop languageallowing the omission of the subject canti : I sing; cantas you sing.
Among these 19 discriminating criteria, 7 are different from Spanish, 8 from Italian, 12 from Franco-Provençal, and 16 from French. Examples of dialect-specific features of the northerly dialects shared with French, but not Catalan:.
Examples of Occihane features of the southerly dialects or Occktane of them shared with Catalan, but not French:..
Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the distance between this language and Langue Occitane Occitan dialects such as the Gascon language is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. Catalan was considered a dialect of Occitan until the end of the 19th century  and still today remains its Langue Occitane relative. Occitan is an official language of Cataloniawhere a subdialect of Samson Porr known as Aranese is spoken in the Val d'Aran.
Occitan also called Languedoc, modern name given by linguists to a group of dialects that form a Romance that was spoken in the early 21st century by about 1, people in southern France, though many estimates range as low as Occitwne that number. The Langue Occitane Red Book lists some of the dialects of Occitan as “seriously endangered.”.
Feb 13, · The Occitan is spoken across Spain, Italy and France. Occitan is a that is spoken across the Occitania region — mainly in southern France but Lanue in northern Spain, in Monaco (and along the French Langue Occitane towards Marseille) and also in the Occitan Valleys in sausalitoferryschedule.co: Alex Ledsom. Flashing Grandmother